The Salafi movement, also called the Salafist movement, Salafiya and Salafism, is a reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Al-Azhar Mosque in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to Western European imperialism. It had roots in the 18th-century Wahhabi movement that originated in the Najd region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. The name derives from advocating a return to the traditions of the salaf, the first three generations of Muslims, which they said was the unadulterated, pure form of Islam. Theoretically, those generations include the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions (the Sahabah), their successors (the Tabi‘un) and the successors of the successors (the Taba Tabi‘in). Practically, Salafis maintain that Muslims ought to rely on the Quran, the Sunnah and the consensus of the salafs alone, ignoring the rest of Islamic hermeneutic teachings.The Salafist doctrine is based on looking back to the early years of the religion to understand how the contemporary Muslims should practise their faith. They reject religious innovation or bid'ah and support the implementation of sharia (Islamic law). The movement is sometimes divided into three categories: the largest group being the purists (or quietists), who avoid politics; the second largest group being the activists, who maintain regular involvement in politics; and the third group being the jihadists, who form a minority and advocate armed struggle to restore the early Islamic movement. In legal matters, the Salafi are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement (ijtihad), reject strict adherence (taqlid) to the four Sunni schools of law (madhahib) and others who remain faithful to these, especially to Hanbali Madhab, the parent school of Salafi doctrine.In the Persian Gulf states, the majority of the Salafis reside in Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. 46.87 per cent of Qataris and 44.8 per cent of Emiratis are Salafis. By contrast, Bahrain has 5.7 per cent Salafis, and Kuwait has a population that is 2.17 per cent Salafis. The Salafi literalist or fundamentalist creed has also gained some acceptance in Turkey.At times, Salafism has been deemed a hybrid of Wahhabism and other post-1960s movements. Salafism has become associated with literalist, strict and puritanical approaches to Islam. Western observers and analysts often, incorrectly, equate the movement with Salafi jihadism, a hybrid ideology which espouses violent attacks against those it deems to be enemies of Islam as a legitimate expression of Islam.Academics and historians have used the term "Salafism" to denote "a school of thought which surfaced in the second half of the 19th century as a reaction to the spread of European ideas" and "sought to expose the roots of modernity within Muslim civilization". However, some contemporary Salafis follow "literal, traditional ... injunctions of the sacred texts", looking to Ibn Taymiyyah or his disciple Ibn Kathir rather than the modernistic approach of Salafism of 19th-century figures Muhammad Abduh, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Rashid Rida. Major figures in the movement include Ibn Taymiyyah, Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen, Rabee al-Madkhali, Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i, Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani and Saleh Al-Fawzan.