The AK-12 is a Russian assault rifle chambered in 5.45×39mm designed and manufactured by the Kalashnikov Concern (formerly Izhmash), making it the fifth generation of Kalashnikov rifles.Kalashnikov Concern also offers a variant chambered in 7.62×39mm, known as the AK-15 due to the request of the Russian military and a variant chambered in 5.56×45mm NATO, known as the AK-19 under development. Compact variants of the AK-12 and AK-15 are also available, respectively the AK-12K and AK-15K which features a shorter barrel.
The AK-12 project began in 2011 by the IZHMASH factory which became part of the Kalashnikov Concern as a private venture, in an attempt to participate in the "Ratnik" trials which were held by the Russian Army. It was further developed by Kalashnikov Concern, throughout its development and evaluation stage it has received multiple modifications to meet the Russian military's standard and to address the Russian Army's concerns regarding the cost and issues in fully automatic fire of the earlier prototype models. It went through several revisions in order to improve upon the "range of defects" that were discovered on the earlier prototype models that were derived from the AK-200. These were later abandoned in favour for the proven and improved AK-400, which became the finalised model of the AK-12.