2011 Norway attacks
The 2011 Norway attacks, referred to in Norway as 22 July (Norwegian: 22. juli), the date of the events, were two sequential lone wolf terrorist
attacks by Anders Behring Breivik against the government, the civilian population, and a Workers' Youth League (AUF)-run summer camp. The attacks claimed a total of 77 lives.
The first attack was a car bomb explosion in Oslo within Regjeringskvartalet, the executive government quarter of Norway, at 15:25:22 (CEST). The bomb was made from a mixture of fertiliser and fuel oil and placed in the back of a van. The van was placed next to the tower block housing the office of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg. The explosion killed eight people and injured at least 209 people, twelve of them seriously.The second attack occurred less than two hours later at a summer camp on the island of Utøya in Tyrifjorden, Buskerud. The camp was organized by the AUF, the youth division of the ruling Norwegian Labour Party (AP). Breivik, dressed in a homemade police uniform and showing false identification, took a ferry to the island and opened fire at the participants, killing 68 of them outright, and injuring at least 110 people, 55 of them seriously; the 69th victim died in a hospital two days after the massacre. Among the dead were friends of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, and the stepbrother of Norway's crown princess Mette-Marit.It was the deadliest attack in Norway since World War II, and a survey found that one in four Norwegians knew "someone affected by the attacks". The European Union, NATO and several countries around the world expressed their support for Norway and condemned the attacks.
On 13 August 2012, Norway's prime minister received the Gjørv Report which concluded that Norway's police could have prevented the bombing of central Oslo and caught the gunman faster at Utøya, and that more security and emergency measures to prevent further attacks and "mitigate adverse effects" should have been implemented on 22 July.The Norwegian Police arrested Anders Behring Breivik, a 32-year-old Norwegian right-wing extremist, on Utøya island and charged him with both attacks. The trial against him took place between 16 April and 22 June 2012 in Oslo District Court, where Breivik admitted to having carried out the actions he was accused of, but denied criminal guilt and claimed the defense of necessity (jus necessitatis). On 24 August 2012, Breivik was convicted as charged and sentenced to 21 years of preventive detention in prison (the maximum sentence allowed in Norway), at the expiration of which the sentence can be extended indefinitely, in five year increments, as long as the prisoner is deemed a threat to society.