Dry eye syndrome
Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is the condition of having dry eyes. Other associated symptoms include irritation, redness, discharge, and easily fatigued eyes. Blurred vision may also occur. The symptoms can range from mild and occasional to severe and continuous. Scarring of the cornea may occur in some cases without treatment.Dry eye occurs when either the eye does not produce enough tears or when the tears evaporate too quickly. This can result from contact lens use, meibomian gland dysfunction, pregnancy, Sjögren syndrome, vitamin A deficiency, LASIK surgery, and certain medications such as antihistamines, some blood pressure medication, hormone replacement therapy, and antidepressants. Chronic conjunctivitis such as from tobacco smoke exposure or infection may also lead to the condition. Diagnosis is mostly based on the symptoms, though a number of other tests may be used.Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Artificial tears are the usual first line treatment. Wrap around glasses that fit close to the face may decrease tear evaporation. Stopping or changing certain medications may help. The medication ciclosporin or steroid eye drops may be used in some cases. Another option is lacrimal plugs that prevent tears from draining from the surface of the eye. Dry eye syndrome occasionally makes wearing contact lenses impossible.Dry eye syndrome is a common eye disease. It affects 5–34% of people to some degree depending on the population looked at. Among older people it affects up to 70%. In China it affects about 17% of people. The phrase "keratoconjunctivitis sicca" means "dryness of the cornea and conjunctiva" in Latin.