Ayahuasca is a South American entheogenic brew commonly made out of the Banisteriopsis caapi vine, the Psychotria viridis shrub or a substitute, and possibly other ingredients; although, in the West, a chemically similar preparation also known and sold as ayahuasca, but occasionally also known as "pharmahuasca", can be prepared using illicitly manufactured N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a pharmaceutical monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid. The brew is used as a traditional spiritual medicine in ceremonies among the indigenous peoples of the Amazon basin.B. caapi contains several alkaloids that act as MAOIs, which are required for DMT to be orally active. The other required ingredient is a plant that contains the primary psychoactive, DMT. This is usually the shrub P. viridis, but Diplopterys cabrerana may be used as a substitute. Other plant ingredients often or occasionally used in the production of ayahuasca include Justicia pectoralis, one of the Brugmansia (especially Brugmansia insignis and Brugmansia versicolor, or a hybrid breed) or Datura species, and mapacho (Nicotiana rustica).