High Speed 1
High Speed 1 (HS1), legally the Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL), is a 67-mile (108 km) high-speed railway linking London with the Channel Tunnel.
The line carries international passenger traffic between the United Kingdom and mainland Europe; it also carries domestic passenger traffic to and from stations in Kent and east London, and Berne gauge freight traffic. The line crosses the River Medway, and tunnels under the River Thames, terminating at London St Pancras International station on the north side of central London. It cost £5.8 billion to build and opened on 14 November 2007. Trains run at speeds of up to 300 kilometres per hour (186 mph) on HS1. Intermediate stations are at Stratford International in London, Ebbsfleet International in northern Kent and Ashford International in southern Kent.
International passenger services are provided by Eurostar, with journey times from London St Pancras International to Paris Gare du Nord in 2 hours 15 minutes, and London St Pancras International to Brussels South/Gare Du Bruxelles Midi/Brussel Zuid in 1 hour and 51 minutes. As of November 2015, Eurostar has used a fleet of 27 Class 373/1 multi-system trains capable of 300 kilometres per hour (186 mph) and 320 kilometres per hour (200 mph) Class 374 trains. Domestic high-speed commuter services serving the intermediate stations and beyond began on 13 December 2009. The fleet of 29 Class 395 passenger trains reach speeds of 225 kilometres per hour (140 mph). DB Cargo UK run freight services on High Speed 1 using adapted Class 92 locomotives, enabling flat wagons carrying continental-size swap body containers to reach London for the first time.The CTRL project saw new bridges and tunnels built, with a combined length nearly as long as the Channel Tunnel itself, and significant archaeological research undertaken. In 2002, the CTRL project was awarded the Major Project Award at the British Construction Industry Awards. The line was transferred to government ownership in 2009, with a 30-year concession for its operation being put up for sale in June 2010. The concession was awarded to a consortium of Borealis Infrastructure (part of Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System) and Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan in November 2010, but does not include the freehold or rights to any of the associated land.In July 2017 HS1 Ltd. was acquired by a consortium of funds advised and managed by InfraRed Capital Partners Limited and Equitix Investment Management Limited.