Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistan ,کوردستان [ˌkʊɾdɪˈstɑːn] (listen); lit. "land of the Kurds") is a roughly defined geo-cultural territory in Western Asia wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and the Kurdish culture, languages, and national identity have historically been based. Geographically, Kurdistan roughly encompasses the northwestern Zagros and the eastern Taurus mountain ranges.Kurdistan generally comprises the following four areas: southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan). Some definitions also include parts of southern Transcaucasia. Certain Kurdish nationalist organizations seek to create an independent nation state consisting of some or all of these areas with a Kurdish majority, while others campaign for greater autonomy within the existing national boundaries.Historically, the word "Kurdistan" is first attested in 11th century Seljuk chronicles. While there were a large number of disparate Kurdish dynasties, emirates, principalities and chiefdoms established from the 8th to 19th centuries. Administratively, the 20th century saw the establishment of the short-lived areas of the Kingdom of Kurdistan (1921–1924), Kurdistansky Uyezd i.e. "Red Kurdistan" (1923-1929), the Republic of Ararat (1927–1930), and the Republic of Mahabad (1946).
Presently, Iraqi Kurdistan first gained autonomous status in a 1970 agreement with the Iraqi government, and its status was re-confirmed as the autonomous Kurdistan Region within the federal Iraqi republic in 2005. There is also a Kurdistan Province in Iran, but it is not self-ruled. Kurds fighting in the Syrian Civil War were able to take control of large sections of northern Syria and establish self-governing regions in an Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, where they call for autonomy in a federal Syria after the war.