Mid-Atlantic (United States)
The Middle Atlantic states, commonly shortened to Mid-Atlantic states, is a region of the United States generally located in the overlap between the Northeastern and Southeastern States. Its exact definition differs upon source, but the region usually includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Washington, D.C., Virginia and West Virginia. When discussing climate, Connecticut is sometimes included in the region, since its climate is closer to that of the Middle Atlantic states than the rest of the New England states. The Mid-Atlantic has played an important role in the development of American culture, commerce, trade and industry; in the late 19th century, the Mid-Atlantic was called "the typically American" region by Frederick Jackson Turner.
European Americans of the mid-Atlantic region have ancestry from its settlement by Dutch, Swedes, English Catholics and Quakers through to the period of British rule and beyond to the current day. Religious pluralism existed, particularly in Maryland, which was the only colony in the original Thirteen Colonies to have a substantial Catholic minority population. After the American Revolution, the Mid-Atlantic region hosted each of the historic capitals of the United States, including the current federal capital, Washington, D.C. In the early part of the 19th century, New York and Pennsylvania overtook Virginia as the most populous states and the New England states as the country's most important trading and industrial centers. Large numbers of German, Irish, Italian, Jewish, Polish and other immigrants transformed the region, especially coastal cities such as New York City, Newark, Philadelphia and Baltimore, but also interior cities such as Pittsburgh, Rochester, Albany and Buffalo. New York, with its skyscrapers, subways and the Headquarters of the United Nations, emerged in the 20th century as an icon of modernity and American economic and cultural power. By the 21st century, the coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic were thoroughly urbanized.
The Northeast Corridor and Interstate 95 link an almost contiguous sprawl of suburbs and large and small cities, forming the Mid-Atlantic portion of the Northeast megalopolis, one of the world's most important concentrations of finance, media, communications, education, medicine and technology. The Mid-Atlantic is a relatively affluent region of the nation, having 43 of the 100 highest-income counties in the nation based on median household income and 33 of the top 100 based on per capita income. Most of the Mid-Atlantic states rank among the 15 highest-income states in the nation by median household income and per capita income. The region is home to some of the most prestigious universities in the nation and world including Columbia University, Cornell University, Johns Hopkins University, the University of Pennsylvania and Princeton University, which rank among the top 20 universities in the United States and the top 25 universities in the world.