2020 VV is an Apollo near-Earth asteroid roughly 12 meters (40 feet) in diameter. According to the Sentry monitoring system, the asteroid has a 0.9% chance (1 in 120) of impacting Earth on 12 October 2033 11:43 UT. The asteroid has a short 18 day observation arc. The nominal Earth approach is 16 October 2033 at 0.0064 AU (960,000 km; 590,000 mi), but the line of variations (LOV) is only known with an accuracy of ±5 days. The line of variations allows the asteroid to impact Earth or pass as far away as 0.019 AU (2,800,000 km; 1,800,000 mi). With a diameter range of 10–22 meters the asteroid could be as large as the Chelyabinsk meteor.
2020 VV was discovered on 5 November 2020 when it was about 0.036 AU (5,400,000 km; 3,300,000 mi) from Earth and had a solar elongation of 150 degrees. It has a very low 0.35° orbital inclination with respect to the ecliptic plane and an Earth-MOID of only 14,800 km. The asteroid passed Earth on 21 October 2020 at a distance of 0.0215 AU (3,220,000 km; 2,000,000 mi).Where Earth will be on a given date is known, but given the short observation arc where precisely the asteroid will be on its orbit in 2033 is not. A slight variation in the known orbit of the asteroid can cause the asteroid to be early, right on time (impact solution), or late.Impact probabilities are calculated independently by Sentry, NEODyS-2 and ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme. Different models result in slightly different orbit solutions, nominal close approach distances, and impact probabilities. With a long enough observation arc these solutions will converge. In general when the nominal approach is closer to the impact scenario, the odds of impact are greater.
The line of variation (risk corridor) passes over the northeastern USA, Spain, Saudi Arabia, India, and China.2020 VV is not categorized as a potentially hazardous object, because the estimated size is significantly smaller than the threshold of about 140 meters for potentially hazardous objects.
The greatest chances of impact were listed between 17–20 November 2020. On 17 November 2020 the Space Situational Awareness Programme listed a 4.2% chance (1 in 24) of impact, Sentry listed a 2.8% chance (1 in 36), and NEODyS-2 listed a cumulative 5.9% chance of impact. By 20 November 2020 with a 15 day observation arc NEODyS-2 listed a 4.4% chance (1 in 23) of impact. At the same time, Sentry listed a 1.3% chance (1 in 77) of impact, and the Space Situational Awareness Programme listed a 1.6% chance (1 in 63).